GCSE Food Help – Materials and Components

This article refers to the science part of GCSE Food Technology, fundamentally the composition of food, the properties of food and the effect that processing has on food.Loaded Bride Paratha | Dulhan Paratha in Street Food of Hyderabad Pakistan.  - YouTube

The Main Macro Nutrients are:

Protein – the GCSE Food technology course will focus on Milk, eggs, soya and cheese. You will need a basic understanding of the structure, As well as the nutritional properties. Then the effect of Mechanical action, Heat, Alkali’s and acids on the sensory, nutritional and physical properties i.e. denaturation and coagulation.

Lipids/Fats – Similar to proteins, the chemical composition, nutritional properties and there working characteristics. The working characteristics will cover aeration, emulsification, shortening, lubrication, plasticity and cooking medium.

Carbohydrate – Again Chemical structure, nutritional properties. The working characteristics for sugar will focus on the effects of heat on starch, sugar and Non Soluble Protein (NSP)

The Micro Nutrients are:

Vitamins A, B, C, D and Minerals Calcium, Phosphorus and iron, For Micro nutrients you will learn their properties and sources, as well as the impact on processing. There are more micro nutrients but these are specifically in the GCSE Food technology course

PROTEIN

Protein is the first item in the materials and components section of GCSE food technology, Protein is the building block of all food materials, I would suggest a read of the wiki on Protein for an overall understanding of Protein.

Protein is predominantly found in animal based foods, such as meat, milk, eggs etc. but some can be found in vegetable products such as beans and nuts.

Protein when digested dissolves into smaller components called Amino Acids. It is these amino acids that the body needs to repair itself. Your body is constantly repairing itself, replacing old cells with new, a good example is hair and nails. Without protein the body cannot survive. It is recommended that a person consumes around 50g of protein a day.

Protein Food Groups Food Types can be split into 2 groups HBV – High Biological Value and LBV- Low Biological Value.

Foods in the HBV group tend to contain the Majority of the 10 amino acids the body needs. Typical foods in this group are Meat, Fish, Milk, Eggs and Soya Beans. These food items should play a man part in a diet.

Foods in the LBV group tend to contain only a few of the amino acids needed. The foods in this group are, typically Pulses (bean, lentils) and nuts. LBV group is important as certain diets can only consume these proteins i.e. Vegan.

Properties

Proteins have a unique property, upon heating they denature. This means the protein hardens, a prime example is egg white which has 10% protein. When cooked the clear runny egg white will change to a white firm rubbery consistency. This property is used heavily in the food industry to make products such as cakes, bread etc.

CARBOHYDRATES

Carbohydrates are the second major nutrient in the superfoods materials section of GCSE food technology. Carbohydrates fall into two categories Sugars and Starch.

SUGARS

The sugar we are all used to is called sucrose and is a white crystal material. it is the most preferred of the sugars because of its sweetness level. Typically the chemical name for sugar ends in -ose, there are many sugars other the sucrose, fructose found in fruit, lactose found in milk.

There are two key types of sugar Mono-saccharides and Di saccharides.

Mono Saccharides, are simple sugars, such as fruits and vegetables. Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide and is the key sugar in the blood chemistry.

Di saccharides, are more complex sugars and are more commonly found, examples are sucrose (common sugar), lactose from milk,.

Properties of sugar, are that they sweeten products, can cause caramelisation (browning), Sugar can also act as a preservative, often seen in jam making.

STARCH

Starches are longer chains of sugar molecules, monosaccharide = 1 molecule, disaccharide = 2 molecules. starches many molecules. Starch is commonly found in foods such as potatoes, pasta rice and flour.

The Properties of starch are one of the most important in Food Technology, without these properties most food couldn’t be made.

Starch has a property called GELATINISATION this means the starch absorbs water and swells forming a Gel. This is best seen with cornflour and water, mixed together cold it forms a suspensions in a liquid, heat it up and it forms a thick sauce. Add yellow food colouring and flavouring and you have custard.

This gelatinisation is also seen in bread making and lots of other sections. This will be very useful in the practical section of the GCSE Food Technology Course

LIPIDS

First off a quick way to remember that “Lipids” means Fat. LIPOSUCTION REMOVES FAT. Lipo, Lipid = Fat.

FAT is required by the body as a source of energy, it also required to insulate the body from the cold. Fat is also required to carry vitamins within the body. There are multiple forms of Fat the two main ones in GCSE Food Technology are Saturated Fats and Polyunsaturated Fats.

Saturated Fats

Saturated Fats typically come from animals, although can be found in some vegetables (coconut and palm oil). It tends to be hard when cold, so if it is very hard (unspreadable) when in the fridge it is typically saturated. Examples of saturated Fat products are, butter, lard. There is still an argument over the health benefits of saturated Fats, as earlier studies that suggested it leads to heart problems are now being challenged. Typically a Diet high in Saturated Fat is unhealthy leading to high levels of cholesterol.

Polyunsaturated Fat.

Poly unsaturated fat typically comes from vegetables and grains. It is easily recognisable as it is liquid at room temperature, i.e. vegetable oil, olive oil, sesame oil etc. In recent years Food technology has changed the properties of these oils to harden them at room temperature. This process is called Hydrogenation, the most common example of this is margarine. The main reason for doing this is the price of vegetable oil vs the price of butter. Hence the reason margarine was cheaper than butter.

 

This article refers to the science part of GCSE Food Technology, fundamentally the composition of food, the properties of food and the effect that processing has on food. The Main Macro Nutrients are: Protein – the GCSE Food technology course will focus on Milk, eggs, soya and cheese. You will need a basic understanding of the…

This article refers to the science part of GCSE Food Technology, fundamentally the composition of food, the properties of food and the effect that processing has on food. The Main Macro Nutrients are: Protein – the GCSE Food technology course will focus on Milk, eggs, soya and cheese. You will need a basic understanding of the…

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